Nigeria

Nigeria

Use Normal Level of Caution
Use High Level of Caution when visiting the following provinces: Rivers, Kano, Bayelsa, Zamfara, Sokoto, Kebbi, Katsina, Kaduna, and Jigawa
Avoid Travel to the following provinces: Water body, Yobe, Gombe, Borno, and Bauchi

The Federal Republic of Nigeria is located in West Africa between Benin and Cameroon, with coastline on the Atlantic Ocean. Nigeria's population is approximately 155 million people. Although the official language is English, there are many recognized national and regional languages.

Nigeria's government is a federal republic. A president serves as the chief of state and head of government, elected by popular vote.

Nigeria has considerable oil wealth, and violence in the oil-producing region is an ongoing problem. Corruption and political instability remain problems, although the government has made major improvements in efforts to tackle these issues. Nigeria's human rights record remains poor.

Currency NGN: Naira
Language English
Capital Abuja
Recent Alerts 6
Latest Alert March 23, 2017 - Meningitis in Niger State, Nigeria

Diseases To Be Aware Of

The diseases listed below are those which occur most often in Nigeria. Other, less frequently encountered diseases might be displayed within the Travel Alerts section if they have occurred recently.

Cholera

Cholera outbreaks occur in Nigeria. The risk to travellers is low unless living or working in poor sanitary conditions, drinking untreated water or eating poorly cooked or raw seafood in this country.

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis occurs in Nigeria. Travellers to Nigeria are at risk for tuberculosis if visiting sick friends or family, working in the health care field, or having close prolonged contact with the general population.

Hepatitis A

There is a significant risk for hepatitis A virus exposure in Nigeria through contaminated food or water.

Hepatitis B

There is a significant risk for acquiring hepatitis B in Nigeria.

Meningitis

Meningitis outbreaks occur in Nigeria. Travellers who visit during the dry season (December to June) or expect to have prolonged contact with the local population are especially at risk.

Malaria

All areas of Nigeria are at high risk for malaria.

Typhoid Fever

Unvaccinated people can become infected through contaminated food and water in Nigeria, especially when visiting smaller cities, villages, or rural areas where food and water sources may be contaminated.

Leishmaniasis

Sporadic cases of leishmaniasis occur in Nigeria.

Sleeping Sickness (Type 1)

This disease only occurs in rural sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria (excluding the extreme northern areas). High risk areas include Benue State and the southwestern states of Edo and Delta. Travellers to urban areas are not at risk.

River blindness

Onchocerciasis occurs in Nigeria, but the risk to short-term travellers is low unless living or working near black flies or staying in this country for longer than 3 months.

Yellow Fever

There is a risk of yellow fever transmission in Nigeria. This country requires a yellow fever vaccination certificate for travellers over 1 year of age arriving from countries with risk of yellow fever transmission. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that all travellers 9 month of age and older should be vaccinated.

Rabies

Rabies occurs in this country. Travellers involved in outdoor activities (e.g., campers, hikers, adventure travellers, and cavers) may have direct contact with rabid dogs, bats, and other mammals. Those with occupational risks (such as veterinarians, wildlife professionals, researchers) and long-term travellers and expatriates are at higher risk.

Dengue Fever

Dengue fever may occur in this country.

Chikungunya Fever

Chikungunya fever may occur in this country.

Polio

In 2016, there were 4 reported cases of polio, all located in the state of Borno.

Lassa Fever

Sporadic cases of Lassa fever occur every year in at least 23 states.

Zika Fever

Zika fever may occur in Nigeria.

Vaccinations to Consider

The following is a list of recommended vaccinations for travelling to Nigeria.

Hepatitis A Vaccine

There is a significant risk of exposure to hepatitis A for this country, therefore, the vaccination is recommended.

Hepatitis B Vaccine

There is a significant risk of infection with hepatitis B for this country, therefore, the vaccination is recommended.

Typhoid Fever Vaccine

There is a risk of exposure to typhoid fever in this country through consumption of unsafe food and water. Since exposure to unsafe sources is variable within this country, the vaccination against typhoid fever is generally recommended, especially when visiting smaller cities or rural areas, where food and water sources may be contaminated.

Meningitis Vaccine

Because this country is located in the sub-Saharan meningitis belt, vaccination against meningitis is recommended if travelling during the dry season (December to June).

Yellow Fever Vaccine

There is a risk of yellow fever transmission in Nigeria. This country requires a yellow fever vaccination certificate for travellers 1 year of age and older arriving from countries with risk of yellow fever transmission. However, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that all travellers 9 month of age and older should be vaccinated.

Rabies Vaccine

Vaccination against rabies is recommended for travellers involved in outdoor activities (e.g., campers, hikers, adventure travellers, and cavers) who may have direct contact with rabid dogs, bats, and other mammals. Those with occupational risks (such as veterinarians, wildlife professionals, researchers) and long-term travellers and expatriates are at higher risk and should be vaccinated.

Polio Vaccine

Travellers in any country that reports cases of polio can reduce their risk of exposure to polio virus by ensuring that their childhood vaccinations, including polio, are up-to-date prior to travelling. Residents (and visitors for more than 4 weeks) from infected areas should receive an additional dose of oral polio vaccine or inactivated polio vaccine within 4 weeks to 12 months before travelling.

Medications to Consider

The following is a list of recommended medications for travelling to Nigeria.

Anti-malarial Drugs

Recommended anti-malaria medication includes atovaquone-proguanil, doxycycline, or mefloquine. Anti-malaria drug resistance for chloroquine is present.

Safety and Security in Nigeria

Emergency Numbers

112
08033568389 Central Police Station

In the event of a medical emergency in Nigeria, you may need to call your embassy.

Personal Safety

Travellers should avoid any non-essential travel to Nigeria due to violent crime, serious disturbances, and militant activity. The security situation in Nigeria is highly unstable, and the risk of kidnappings, armed attacks, banditry, and violent assault is considerable.

The level of crime throughout Nigeria is high. Armed robberies, hostage taking, car-jacking, and violent assaults, particularly conducted by large well-armed groups, are common. Foreigners should be accompanied by an escort vehicle with police when arriving at or leaving from an airport as these main routes frequently experience car-jacking.

Any travellers to Nigeria should maintain an extremely high level of vigilance. Travellers are advised against all unnecessary road travel after dark. Major cities, such as Abuja and Lagos, experience high levels of violent crime, including armed attacks against foreign nationals and assaults in tourist areas. Crowds, public gatherings, and demonstrations should be avoided. Copies of travel documents and identification should be carried at all times, and official documents should be stored safely. Do not display any signs of affluence.

A law has recently been passed (January 2014) that makes homosexual activity illegal. Any public display of gay relationship, membership in a gay club, or gay marriage is punishable by up to 10 years in prison.

Areas To Avoid

The Niger River Delta region should be avoided completely, particularly the areas of Gombi, Delta, Bayelsa and Rivers States, including the city of Port Harcourt. The security situation in this area is very unpredictable due to militant activity and an ongoing Joint Task Force (JTF) military operation which has caused the deaths of a number of civilians. Western nations have advised their nationals in this area to leave due to the risk of abduction and armed assault. Kidnappings, hostage taking, and ship hijackings occur frequently in this area.

Borno, Yobe, and central area of Plateau State have imposed state-wide, dusk to dawn curfews. Bauchi continues to enforce a 12:00 am to 6:00 am curfew.

Extreme Violence

Violent outbreaks have been reported in northern Nigeria. Hundreds of people were killed and injured during violent confrontations between Nigerian police and members of a local sect in the northern states of Nigeria in July 2009. There is a heightened security presence in northern cities and road checkpoints have been established.

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